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在原有宅基地范围内未批先建房屋能否认定为违法建筑强制拆除?
来源:京高院    发布时间:2018-06-13 09:19    作者:京高院    阅读:

      《中华人民共和国城乡规划法》第六十四条对未取得建设规划许可证进行建设的处罚裁量幅度规定为:尚可采取改正措施消除对规划实施的影响的,限期改正,并处罚款;无法采取改正措施消除影响的,限期拆除;不能拆除的,没收实物或违法收入,可以并处罚款。《北京市城乡规划条例》第六十六条第一款规定,城镇建设工程未取得建设工程规划许可证或者未按照建设工程规划许可证许可内容进行建设的,由规划行政主管部门责令停止建设;尚可采取改正措施消除对规划实施的影响的,限期改正,处该建设工程总造价百分之五以上百分之十以下的罚款;无法采取改正措施消除影响的,限期拆除,不能拆除的,没收实物或者违法收入,可以并处该建设工程总造价百分之十以下的罚款。根据上述规定,针对未取得建设工程规划许可证的建筑,尚可采取改正措施消除对规划实施的影响的,应限期改正;无法采取改正措施消除影响的,方可限期拆除或没收。

      法律并非仅是条文中所罗列的惩处性规定,其最终目的是为了维护人民的权益,保障社会的正常运行。对于未批先建的建筑,应先选择采取责令限期补办规划手续等改正措施后,再针对相应改正的情况酌情作出决定。直接作出限期拆除决定必然将对当事人的权益造成过度损害,应属明显不当,依法应予撤销。

      行政裁量权的行使应符合比例原则。比例原则要求行政行为的作出应兼顾行政目的实现与相对人权益的保护。如果行政目标的实现可能对相对人的权益造成不利影响,则这种不利影响应被限制在尽可能小的范围和限度内。行政裁量行为应充分考虑手段与后果的关系,如行政裁量行为未充分考虑行为后果以及该后果背后的法益,则不符合比例原则的要求。《中华人民共和国城乡规划法》第六十四条对规划行政主管部门查处未取得建设工程规划许可证即开工建设的情形作出了明确规定。一般而言,规划行政主管部门应视违法建设的具体情节作出责令停止建设、限期改正、罚款、限期拆除、没收实物或者违法收入等措施或处罚。而对于何为“尚可采取改正措施消除对规划实施的影响的”,上述法律法规并无具体规定。对此,《住房和城乡建设部关于印发〈关于规范城乡规划行政处罚裁量权的指导意见〉的通知》(以下简称指导意见)第四条、第七条,若干规定第二十六条作出了进一步细化规定。但上述指导意见及若干规定中的有关规定并非绝对条款,而“尚可采取改正措施消除对规划实施的影响的”从法律法规层面仍有进一步解释的空间。尤其是相对人在原房屋严重影响居住安全与生活质量进行翻建的情况下,违法建设的查处机关应当充分考虑其所作行政行为是否会对违法建设人的居住安全与正常生活产生过度侵害,即应在充分平衡规划秩序利益与安居利益的前提下,采取适当的处理。如未充分考虑违法建设人的居住安全利益,则不符合比例原则的要求。

      行政行为的作出应当符合法规规范的目的。城乡规划建设以及执法机关相应的执法行为应贯彻“以人为本”的理念,保障人民群众有所居、安于所居彰显的是人的基本权利与尊严,亦是依法行政的应有之义。相关部门的执法活动均须以此为依归,方能体现其正当性。

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